Unusual Tracks in Texas Point out Big Sauropods Strolling on Their Entrance Toes Solely

They had been the most important animals to ever stroll the Earth: sauropods, a dinosaur clade of such immense measurement and stature, they’re generally dubbed ‘thunder lizards’.

These towering hulks – together with Brontosaurus, Brachiosaurus, and Diplodocus amongst others – wanted 4 thick, highly effective legs to assist and transport their huge our bodies. No less than, more often than not. Maybe.


Some mysterious, historic tracks described in a brand new examine might provide recent assist for a disputed view in palaeontology: that these lumbering giants generally bought round on two legs, not 4, belying what their quadruped standing (and easy physics) would appear to demand.

Sauropod footprints on the Espresso Hole A-Male trackways. (Heritage Museum of the Texas Hill Nation)

As unusual as it’d sound, this speculation dates again a number of a long time, to when fossil researcher Roland T. Fowl recognized some uncommon dinosaur tracks laid down on ranch grounds within the county of Bandera, Texas.

What made the tracks uncommon was that the marks had been manus solely, referring to footprint impressions made by entrance limbs, not the rear limbs (referred to as pes).

“Undoubtedly made by a sauropod, however as I interpret them, made by a person whereas swimming,” Fowl wrote in a letter in 1940.

“They had been all typical forefeet impressions as if the animal had simply been barely kicking backside.”

With time, Fowl’s interpretation of those manus-only tracks fell out of favour, as fashionable palaeontology got here to understand that sauropods had been primarily land animals, not aquatic as was as soon as thought.

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The choice view to elucidate manus-only tracks like that is that the forefeet of sauropods (supporting extra of the animals’ physique weight) are all that leaves monitor marks on sure sorts of floor surfaces, because the rear limbs, supporting much less weight, depart much less impression on soil and sediment.

010 sauropods 2“A whimsical exploration of the punting speculation.” (Illustration by R.T. Bakker/Farlow et al., Ichnos, 2019)

Whereas which may now be the commonly most popular interpretation of manus-only sauropod tracks, the case for dinosaurs treading via shallow, shoulder-height our bodies of water on their entrance limbs (with their rear limbs not reaching the bottom) has by no means been definitively dominated out.

Now, a collection of extra not too long ago found sauropod tracks in Texas offers palaeontologists an opportunity to rethink the deserves of the arguments.


The brand new marks had been first recognized in 2007 in a limestone quarry referred to as the Espresso Hole, which makes up a part of the Glen Rose Formation, a geological website that preserves quite a few dinosaur footprints relationship again roughly 110 million 12 months in the past (throughout the Cretaceous interval).

Three totally different trails of parallel, manus-only sauropod trackways had been investigated on the website by groups from Purdue College Fort Wayne and the Houston Museum of Pure Sciences, with a number of dozen particular person footprints being preserved for examine (earlier than the floor layers had been eliminated for business functions).

Whereas we do not know for certain what sort of sauropods left these manus-only marks, the researchers spotlight the chance that it could possibly be a distinct form of dinosaur to these accountable for different manus-only footprints beforehand seen within the Glen Rose Formation.

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Given the dimensions of the footprints (as much as about 70 centimetres [27.5 inches] lengthy and extensive), the crew suppose they had been bigger sorts of sauropods, and the trackmarks look to be ‘true tracks’ left on the higher floor, versus undertracks (impressions made in decrease layers of sediment).


As for whether or not the marks assist the thought of differential foot stress or of “uncommon behaviour” (left by dinosaurs semi-swimming, or punting via shallow water), the researchers say it is not possible to make sure, however acknowledge what is probably extra probably, given the burden of what different fossil proof tends to counsel.

“Higher differential stress exerted on the substrate by the forefeet than the hindfeet in all probability explains the Espresso Hole trackways, like different manus-only sauropod trackways, however the chance that they point out uncommon locomotion can’t at current be dominated out,” the authors write of their paper.

“Though hypothesised uncommon behaviour wouldn’t essentially contain ‘swimming’, it’s price contemplating the chance that R.T. Fowl might need been appropriate in considering that (no less than some?) Glen Rose Formation manus-only sauropod trackways had been made by dinosaurs that had been wading in water deep sufficient for his or her makers to punt, pulling themselves alongside by their forefeet, whereas their hind legs floated above the underside.”

In the end, the crew says future discoveries will probably be wanted to settle the matter – which implies the punting sauropod nonetheless has an opportunity to wade into actuality.

The findings are reported in Ichnos.

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